# Lecture 5 — 2015-09-16

## Sets, relations, and semantics

Because I used it in the homework, I went over the `newtype` keyword, which introduces a cost-free static distinction between types. It’s useful for making sure that people don’t confuse similar types, as in:

``````newtype Name = Name String
newtype Office = Office String``````

We can then safely define:

``type Employee = (Name,Office)``

without worrying about which comes first.

We can then pattern match on these as normal:

``````location :: Employee -> String
location (Name n, Office, o) = n ++ " -- " ++ o``````

We can sue record syntax to make pattern matching easier:

``````newtype Age = Age { getAge :: Int }
newtype Height = Height { getHeight :: Int }``````
``````render :: (Age,Height) -> String
render (a,h) = show (getAge a) ++ " (" ++ show feet ++ "' " ++ show inches ++ "\")"
where feet = h `div` 12
inches = h `mod` 12``````

Set theory

We discussed some more set theory, introducing the Cartesian product X × Y = { (x,y) | x ∈ X, y ∈ Y }.

We then used powersets and tuples together to define relations.

Given a set X, we can define binary relations on X as 2X × X, that is, as a set of pairs of elements of X.

We say x1 R x2—that is, that x1 and x2 are related—iff (x1, x2) ∈ R.

What are some examples of binary relations R ∈ 2X × X, i.e., R ⊆ X × X?

• The empty relation, empty = ∅. Nothing is related to anything. A sad, lonely relation.

• The identity relation, id = { (x, x) | x ∈ X }. This relation is reflexive, and nothing else. This relation can be seen as equality: x id y iff x = y.

• The total relation, total = { (x, y) | x, y ∈ X }. Everything is related to everything else.

Taking concrete sets, we can form more intuitive/useful relations.

• The predecessor relation, pred = { (n,n+1) | n ∈ ℕ }. Here x pred y iff x is the predecessor of y. So 0 pred 1, and 1 pred 2, but there is no x (in the naturals, ℕ) such that x pred

There’s another way to define relations: inductively, using inference rules. An inference rule is written in the form:

``````premise1 premise2 ... premisen
------------------------------ Rule
conclusion``````

The way to read such a rule is top down: if you have every premise, then the rule `Rule` gives you the conclusion. We write down derivations using inference rules as tree-like structures, where each premise is itself the conclusion of some other rule, and so on. A rule with no premises is called an axiom, and always holds.

For example, we defined the less-than-or-equal relation, lte, as follows:

``````------- Id
x lte x

--------- Succ
x lte x+1

x lte y    y lte z
------------------ Trans
x lte z``````

We constructed a derivation showing that 0 lte 3, as follows:

``````               ------- Succ    ------- Succ
1 lte 2         2 lte 3
------- Succ   ---------------------------- Trans
0 lte 1        1 lte 3
------------------------------------------------- Trans
0 lte 3``````

Is it the case that x lte y iff x ≤ y?

I should add that binary relations don’t have to relate things in the same set. For example, we saw the relation isin ∈ 2Town × Country, such that Paris isin France but Paris isin Texas as well.

Functions, mathematically

A relation R is a function if: whenever x R y and x R z, then y = z.

For example, the pred relation is a function: if 1 pred y and 1 pred z, then we know that y = z = 2, and nothing else. The lte relation, on the other hand, is not a function: 1 lte 1 and 1 lte 2, but 1 ≠ 2.

We defined another relation in class, sumsto ∈ 2ℕ × ℕ × ℕ, such that sumsto = { (m,n,m+n) | m, n ∈ ℕ }. The sumsto relation is a function: if (m,n,o) and (m,n,p) are both in the sumsto relation, then o = p = m +n.

Rewrite semantics

With our newfound foundation in set theory, we revisited the rewrite semantics for arithmetic. Here’s the syntax from lecture 3.

``````m, n are Integers

e is an Expression ::=
n
| e1 plus e2
| e1 times e2
| negate e``````

And then we defined rewrite rules using → ∈ 2Expr × Expr. (I write → as `->` below.)

``````---------------- Plus
n plus  m -> n+m

---------------- Times
n times m -> n*m

--------------- Negate
negate n  -> -n

e1 -> e1'
------------------------- PlusLeft
e1 plus e2 -> e1' plus e2

e2 -> e2'
------------------------- PlusRight
e1 plus e2 -> e1 plus e2'

e1 -> e1'
--------------------------- TimesLeft
e1 times e2 -> e1' times e2

e2 -> e2'
--------------------------- TimesRight
e1 times e2 -> e1 times e2'

e -> e'
--------------------- NegateInner
negate e -> negate e'``````

The inference rules above define → as a relation on expressions. We have (e1,e2) ∈ → if we can construct a derivation. For example:

``````------------- Plus
2 plus 7 -> 9
------------------------------- PlusLeft
(2 plus 7) times 5 -> 9 times 5``````

Reflexive, transitive closure

Note that → tracks a single step of reduction. What if we want to talk about many steps of reduction?

We defined the reflexive, transitive closure operator, *. We can think of * as a function from relations to relations.

Suppose we have a relation R ∈ 2X × X, for some set X. We define R* as follows:

If (x,y) in R, then (x,y) is in R*.

For all x in X, (x,x) is in R. (That is, R is reflexive.)

If (x,y) and (y,z) in R, then (x,z) in R.

We can rephrase these as inference rules:

``````x R y
------ INCLUDE
X R* y

------ REFL
x R* x

x R* y    y R* z
---------------- TRANS
x R* z``````

We talked in class about how the lte relation is equal to pred*.

We then saw that ->* related more things, so, as in:

(2 plus 7) times 5 -> 9 times 5 -> 45

so

(2 plus 7) times 5 ->* 45.

Resolving ambiguity

go over arithmetic rewrite rules write inference rules, explain as a relation defined by iff

do an easy derivation do an ambiguous derivation

(1 + 2) * (3 + 4)

write up unambiguous rules

Denotational semantics

compositionality

``````[[-]] : Expression -> Integer

[[n]]       = n
[[e1 plus e2]] = [[e1] + [[e2]]
[[e1 times e2]] = [[e1] * [[e2]]
[[negate e]] = - [[e]]``````

Semantics for the Booleans

do a little boolean language and, or, not encode implies (a -> b iff not a or b)